1215 – Magna Carta
1789 – US Constitution of the United States of America
1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man – France
1791 – US Bill of Rights
1924- Declaration of the Rights of the Child
1943 – The Report for Social Security in Canada – Marsh Report
1945 – Canadian Family Allowance Act
1948 – Universal Declaration of Human Rights –
1950 – Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
1952 – UN Convention Concerning Maternity Protection
1959 – United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child
1960 – Canadian Bill of Rights
1966 – International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1967 – Canada- Royal Commission on Taxation – Carter Commission
1970 – Royal Commission on the Status of Women
1976 – International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR
1981 – Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
1982 – the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms- the Constitution Act
1985 – Canadian Human Rights Act
1985 – Canada – Divorce Act
1989 – UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
1990 – UN Millennium Development goals MDG
1990 – Canada, -Ontario – Children’s Law Reform Act
1990 – Canada – Ontario Family Law Act
1992 – UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to National or Ethnic ,Religious or Linguistic Minorities
1995 – Beijing Platform for Action- UN World Conference on women at Beijing
1995 – Barcelona Declaration
2000 – Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
2000 – United Nations Millenium Declaration
2008 – United Nations Millenium Development Goals
2015 – UN Sustainable Development Goals
2016 – Charter of Fundamental Freedoms of the European Union
EXCERPTS OF LAWS RELATED TO CAREGIVING AND UNPAID WORK
1215 Magna Carta
Article 7: After the death of her husband a widow is to have her marriage portion and inheritance immediately and without difficulty, nor is she to give anything for her dower, or for her marriage portion, or for the inheritance which she and her husband held on the day of his death,
1789 Constitution of the United States of America
Article the third… Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to
Article the sixth… The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
1789- Declaration of the Rights of Man – France
1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.
4. Liberty consists in the ability to do whatever does not harm another; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no other limits than those which assure to other members of society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by the law.
6. The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part, in person or by their representatives, in its formation. It must be the same for everyone whether it protects or penalizes.
10. No one should be disturbed for his opinions, even in religion, provided that their manifestation does not trouble public order as established by law.
11. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may therefore speak, write, and print freely, if he accepts his own responsibility for any abuse of this liberty in the cases set by the law.
13. For maintenance of public authority and for expenses of administration, common taxation is indispensable. It should be apportioned equally among all the citizens according to their capacity to pay.
14. All citizens have the right, by themselves or through their representatives, to have demonstrated to them the necessity of public taxes, to consent to them freely, to follow the use made of the proceeds, and to determine the means of apportionment, assessment, and collection, and the duration of them.
1791- US Bill of Rights
Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Amendment IV: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
1924- Declaration of the Rights of the Child
Eglantyne Jebb at the League of Nations
Principle 6: The child shall, wherever possible grow up in the care and under the responsibility of his parents and in any case in an atmosphere of affection and of moral and material security.
1943 – The Report for Social Security in Canada- the Marsh report
- at some point in life, everyone will face unpredictable situations in which their regular income will not be sufficient to cover. A system of “collective pooling” allows for these risks to be covered financially by drawing on resources collected by the entire population.
- social security is intended to raise citizens above, or at least to, a set social minimum. This basic social minimum should be provided through a combination of social insurance, social assistance where necessary, and family allowances; and the separation of the needs of children from those of their parents through the payment of family allowances sufficient to cope with the needs of families of varying sizes.
(the report also looks at health care insurance, temporary assistance in case of illness, suggests a pension plan, and other social benefits related to maternity, disability, loss of employment, and death.)
1945 – Canada – Family Allowance Act
(Assistance was given to those raising children with goals of helping the declining post-war economy, aiding families and helping attain horizontal equity to acknowledge that those raising children had a larger financial burden. It was also designed to maintain citizen purchasing power to help avoid destabilization of the economy).)
- payments were transferred directly to the individual who qualified for them, in this case the mother of the children concerned
- the benefits were approved for qualified families regardless of overall income
- the benefits were untaxed. Over time of benefit increased, extended to older children and later became taxed based on household income
It was made universal partly because universal programs are less costly to administer.
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR
- everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status
- childhood is entitled to special care and assistance
Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3.Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4.No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5.No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.Article 6 ‘everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law
Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 12. ‘No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence.’
(1)Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family
(3)- The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State
Article 23 Everyone has the right to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity
(2)Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection
1950 European Convention on Human Rights and Freedoms
Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
|Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right|
Article 14 – Prohibition of discrimination
The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.
1952 UN Convention Concerning Maternity Protection
-if a woman is nursing her child she shall be entitled to interrupt her work for this purpose
Interruptions of work for the purpose of nursing are to be counted as working hours and remunerated accordingly
1959- United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child
The child shall enjoy the benefits of social security. He shall be entitled to grow and develop in health; to this end special care and protection shall be provided to him and to his mother, including adequate prenatal and post-natal care. The child shall have the right to adequate nutrition, housing, recreation and medical services.
The child, for the full and harmonious development of his personality needs love and understanding. He shall, wherever possible grow up in the care and under the responsibility of his parents, and in any case, in an atmosphere of affection and of moral and material security; a child of tender years shall not, save in exceptional circumstances, be separated from his mother
1960- Canadian Bill of Rights
-guarantees the “right of the individual to equality before the law and the protection of the law.”
1966 – International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
-The States Parties recognize the right of everyone to just and favourable conditions of work, which ensure in particular remuneration which provides all workers as a minimum with fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men with equal pay for equal work
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that
1- the widest possible protection and assistance should be accorded to the family which is the natural and fundamental group unit of society, particularly for its establishment and while it is responsible for the care and education of dependent children
1967 Canada- Royal Commission on Taxation – Carter Commission
: “The first and most essential purpose of taxation is to share the burden of the state fairly among all individuals and families.”
the base upon which the income tax is levied should be as comprehensive as possible
-Fairness should be the main objective of the tax system
– People should be permitted to choose if they wish to be taxed as individuals or, if sharing income, as households.
-integration of the corporate and the personal tax.
-a reduction of the personal marginal tax rate from 80 percent to 50 percent
– the abolition of the taxation of gifts and inheritances between spouses;
-the removal of tax differentials between families with the same total incomes (horizontal equity) “A buck is a buck”
1970- Canada- Royal Commission on the Status of Women
-that the family be the unit of taxation
-child development requires a stable relationships with an adult during the first three years. The commission quotes Benjamin Bloom’s study which found that 50% of an individual’s intellectual development takes place before age 4.
-that a substantial cash allowance of possibly $500, in monthly installments for dependent children to age 16, taxed for wealthy families but universal
-no tax receipts would be required as evidence of childcare expenses because the child care allowance woud be paid to all mothers. The contribution made by mothers who stay home to care for children would be recognized and fewer mothers would be forced to work outside for financial reason
1976 – International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR
The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized.
1981 – Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Article 5c – Maternity is a social function
Article 11 (2) b and © – maternity leave, social benefits and social
Article 11 (1) e – care of children qualifies as incapacity to do paid work
Article 13(2) speaks of the right to family benefits
1982- Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:
a) freedom of conscience and religion
b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication;
c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and
d) freedom of association.
15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
28. Notwithstanding anything in this Charter, the rights and freedoms referred to in it are guaranteed equally to male and female persons.
1985 Canadian Human Rights Act
Article 3 (2)
Where the ground of discrimination is pregnancy or child-birth, the discrimination shall be deemed to be on the ground of sex (gender, a prohibited area of discrimination- my note)
1985- Canada – Divorce Act
(8) In making an order under this section, the court shall take into consideration only the best interests of the child of the marriage as determined by reference to the condition, means, needs and other circumstances of the child.
(10) In making an order under this section, the court shall give effect to the principle that a child of the marriage should have as much contact with each spouse as is consistent with the best interests of the child and, for that purpose, shall take into consideration the willingness of the person for whom custody is sought to facilitate such contact.
1989- UN Convention on the Rights of the Child- UNCRC –
( supported by 196 countries, the most ratified UN human rights convention
-the document includes the right to family relations and parental guidance
and care, freedom of expression, conscience and religion and association and the
right of children to information and to participate in decisions that affect them)
Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child.
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
Article 26 (1)
State Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law
1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child’s development.
3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.
States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to the development of respect for the child’s parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;
-Parents have the primary responsibility for their children
-Parents have the right to choose how their children will be cared for, including the right to stay at home, to use child care services or to use a combination of staying home and child care services
-Society has a collective responsibility to ensure a supportive context for raising children of all families
1990- UN Millenium Development goals MDG
(aimed at a target date of 2015 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.)
-Promote gender equality and empower women.
-Reduce child mortality
-Improve maternal health.
1990- African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
( ratified by 47 of 55 African Union members)
1. The family shall be the natural unit and basis of society. It shall enjoy the protection and support of the State for its establishment and development.
2. State Parties to the present Charter shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses with regard to children during marriage and in the event of its dissolution.
Every child shall be entitled to the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms recognized and guaranteed in this language, religion, political or other opinion, national and social origin, fortune, birth or other status.
-In all actions concerning the child undertaken by any person or authority the best interests of the child shall be the primary consideration.
-In all judicial or administrative proceedings affecting a child who is capable of communicating his/her own views, an opportunity shall be provided for the views of the child to be heard either directly or through an impartial representative as a party to the proceedings, and those views shall be taken into consideration by the relevant authority
State Parties to the present Charter shall ensure, to the maximum extent possible, the survival, protection and development of the child.
ARTICLE 6 1. Every child shall have the right from his birth to a name. 2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth. 3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.
ARTICLE 7 Every child who is capable of communicating his or her own views shall be assured the rights to express his opinions freely in all matters and to disseminate his opinions subject to such restrictions as are prescribed by laws.
ARTICLE 8 Every child shall have the right to free association and freedom of peaceful assembly in conformity with the law.
Every child shall have the right to freedom of thought conscience and religion.
.Parents, and where applicable, legal guardians shall have the duty to provide guidance and direction in the exercise of these rights having regard to the evolving capacities, and best interests of the child.
State Parties shall respect the duty of parents and where applicable, legal guardians, to provide guidance and direction in the enjoyment of these rights subject to the national laws and policies.
ARTICLE 10 No child shall be subject to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family home or correspond
1. Every child shall be entitled to the enjoyment of parental care and protection and shall, whenever possible, have the right to reside with his or her parents. No child shall be separated from his/her parents against his/her will, except when a judicial authority determines in accordance with the appropriate law, that such separation is in the best interest of the child.
2. Every child who is separated from one or both parents shall have the right to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis.
3 Where separation results from the action of a State Party, the State Party shall provide the child, or if appropriate, another member of the family with essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member or members of the family.
1. Parents or other persons responsible for the child shall have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development the child and shall have the duty: (a) to ensure that the best interests of the child are their basic concern at all times; development;
2. State Parties to the present Charter shall in accordance with their means and national conditions take all appropriate measures: (a) to assist parents and other persons responsible for the child and in case of need, provide material assistance and support programmes particularly with regard to nutrition, health, education, clothing and housing; (b) to assist parents and others responsible for the child in the performance of child-rearing and ensure the development of institutions responsible for providing care of children;
1. Any child who is permanently or temporarily deprived of his family environment for any reason shall be entitled to special protection and assistance;
2. State Parties to the present Charter: (a) shall ensure that a child who is parentless, or who is temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or who in his or her best interest cannot be brought up or allowed to remain in that environment shall be provided with alternative family care, which could include, among others, foster placement, or placement in suitable institutions for the care of children;
(b) shall take all necessary measures to trace and re-unite children with parents or relatives where separation is caused by internal and external displacement arising from armed conflicts or natural disasters.
Every child shall have responsibilities towards his family and society, the State and other legally recognized communities and the international community. The child, subject to his age and ability, and such limitations as may be contained in the present Charter, shall have the duty: (a) to work for the cohesion of the family, to respect his parents, superiors and elders at all times and to assist them in case of need; –
1990 – Ontario Canada, – Children’s Law Reform Act
24 (1) The merits of an application under this Part in respect of custody of or access to a child shall be determined on the basis of the best interests of the child,
(2) The court shall consider all the child’s needs and circumstances, including,
(a) the love, affection and emotional ties between the child and,
(i) each person, including a parent or grandparent, entitled to or claiming custody of or access to the child,
(ii) other members of the child’s family who reside with the child, and
(iii) persons involved in the child’s care and upbringing;
(b) the child’s views and preferences, if they can reasonably be ascertained;
(c) the length of time the child has lived in a stable home environment;
1990 – Canada _ Ontario Family Law Act
19 (1)both spouses have an equal right to possession of the matrimonial home
31 (1) Every parent has an obligation to provide support, to the extent that the parent is capable of doing so, for his or her unmarried child who,
32 Every child who is not a minor has an obligation to provide support, in accordance with need, for his or her parent who has cared for or provided support for the child, to the extent that the child is capable of doing so
8) An order for the support of a spouse should recognize the spouse’s contribution to the relationship and the economic consequences of the relationship for the spouse;
9) In determining the amount and duration, if any, of support for a spouse or parent in relation to need, the court shall consider all the circumstances of the parties, including the desirability of the dependant or respondent remaining at home to care for a child
1992 – UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities
States should take appropriate measures so that, wherever possible, persons belonging to minorities may have adequate opportunities to learn their mother tongue or to have instruction in their mother tongue
1995 Beijing Platform for Action- UN World Conference on women at Beijing
We, the Governments participating in the Fourth World Conference on Women, gathered here in Beijing in September 1995
Acknowledging the voices of all women everywhere and taking note of the diversity of women and their roles and circumstances,
-poverty that is affecting the lives of the majority of the world’s people, in particular women and children,
– the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief,
Give priority to promoting and protecting the full and equal enjoyment by women and men of all human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origins, property, birth or other status
Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media
Formulate policies and programmes to help the family in its supporting, educating and nurturing roles,
Provide an environment conducive to the strengthening of the family,
Recognizing the family as the basic unit of society and acknowledge the social significance of maternity, motherhood and the role of parents in the family and in the upbringing of children
Women’s household work and contribution to food production are still undervalued and underreported
-Women’s empowerment and their full participation on the basis of realizing their full potential in society and shaping their lives in accordance with their own aspirations.
-equal sharing of responsibilities for the family by men and women, and a harmonious partnership between them are critical to their well-being and that of th
-Encouraging men to participate fully in all actions towards equality;
-Women are key contributors to the economy and to combating poverty through both remunerated and unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the workplace. Women make a great contribution to the welfare of the family and to the development of society, which is still not recognized or considered in its full importance. The social significance of maternity, motherhood and the role of parents in the family and in the upbringing of children should be acknowledged.
-The family is the basic unit of society and as such should be strengthened. It is entitled to receive comprehensive protection and support. In different cultural, political and social systems, various forms of the family exist.
-The rights, capabilities and responsibilities of family members must be respected.
-Recognition should also be given to the important role often played by women in many countries in caring for other members of their family.
-While poverty affects households as a whole, because of the gender division of labour and responsibilities for household welfare, women bear a disproportionate burden, attempting to manage household consumption and production under conditions of increasing scarcity.
In most parts of the world, women are virtually absent from or are poorly represented in economic decision-making, including the formulation of financial, monetary, commercial and other economic policies, as well as tax systems
-Devise mechanisms and take positive action to enable women to gain access to full and equal participation in the formulation of policies and definition of structures through such bodies as ministries of finance and trade, national economic commissions, economic research institutes and other key agencies,
1995- Barcelona Declaration
15 EU member nations and 12 Mediterranean nations.
The participants agree to establish a partnership in social, cultural and human affairs. To this end: they reaffirm that dialogue and respect between cultures and religions are a necessary precondition for bringing the peoples closer.
2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
The first title
the right to life and personal integrity
The second title
liberty, privacy, protection of personal data , marriage, thought, religion, expression, assembly, education, work, property and asylum.
The third title
equality before the law, prohibition of all discrimination including on basis of disability, age and sexual orientation, cultural, religious and linguistic diversity, the rights of children and the elderly.
2000 United Nations Millenium Declaration
– commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy and discrimination against women.
2008 The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
All 191 United Nations member states, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to help achieve the following Millennium Development Goals by 2015
To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
To achieve universal primary education
To promote gender equality and empower women
To reduce child mortality
To improve maternal health
2009 – UN Guidelines for the Alternate Care of Children-
to prevent unnecessary separation from parents and to support the non-institutional care of children, support for kinship care, by relatives and close friends, foster and family-based and family-like placements
2015- – United Nations Sustainable Development Goals SDG
-set in 2015 and intended to be achieved by 2030
2016 – Charter of Fundamental Freedoms of the European Union
Conscious of its spiritual and moral heritage, the Union is founded on the indivisible, universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity; it is based on the principles of democracy and the rule of law.
Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.
Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.
Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.
The right to marry and the right to found a family shall be guaranteed in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of these rights.
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
1. Everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
3. The freedom to found educational establishments with due respect for democratic principles and the right of parents to ensure the education and teaching of their children in conformity with their religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of such freedom and right.
1. Everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation.
Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
The Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.
Equality between women and men must be ensured in all areas,
In all actions relating to children, whether taken by public authorities or private institutions, the child’s best interests must be a primary consideration.
Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal relationship and direct contact with both his or her parents, unless that is contrary to his or her interests.
The Union recognises and respects the rights of the elderly to lead a life of dignity and independence and to participate in social and cultural life.
The Union recognises and respects the right of persons with disabilities to benefit from measures designed to ensure their independence, social and occupational integration and participation in the life of the community.
The family shall enjoy legal, economic and social protection.
The Union recognises and respects the entitlement to social security benefits and social services providing protection in cases such as maternity, illness, industrial accidents, dependency or old age, and in the case of loss of employment