Polls

To determine what is the will of the public, it is important to ask them.  Governments already do that when they hold elections, outline platforms and seek election based on the goals outlined.  However governments may not fully outline their views on caregiving issues and may prioritize other concerns like defense or health budgets.  They may make but not keep promises.


Governments already seek public opinion with public consultations and by being open to hearing feedback about what they are planning and doing. However consultations may not hear from everyone for reasons of logistics and by -invitation only may prejudice the results. It is not clear that governments always are aware of the will of the public.

Governments also look at current practice, doing statistical studies of how people earn, their education level,current lodging and by collecting other census study and time use data. However such studies capture what people are doing, and it is not clear if they are forced into those situations or freely choosing them. What level of education a person has may not reveal what they would have liked, were there money for it. What salary they have does not indicate if it is a fair salary or just the current salary.  A snapshot of current practice does not indicate preference or fairness..  The rate of poverty may be high but is not likely the preference of the public. A snapshot can reveal where there are  problems but does not show solutions.


A closer look at solutions can be found if people are asked what they want, asked  about their preferred education level, paid work opportunities and what they think would be fair tax policy for themselves and others.   Often on the topic of caregiving, the poll is a rare opportunity that the public is given to express its views on issues often not currently getting much government attention.

A.Recent Polls

B. Polls and Validity


A RECENT POLLS

Many polls have been conducted on caregiving issues.  Here is a list  of some of the recent ones.

1988 – Canada – Vanier Institute – if parents are both in the paid labor force the preferred

            child-care arrangements for children aged 0-5 were

            18% relative , 18% other spouse taking turns, 33% nonrelative,

            17% a center, 12% other

1990 –US –  LA Times poll- reported in New Dimension Magazine- found that 79% of             American women with paid income would quit their jobs if they could afford to             stay home with their children

1990 – US -Virginia Slims poll in US finds that 60% of mothers with paid employment             say their dual role puts them under stress

1990- US – Time interviews 18-29 year olds and 63% say they plan to spend more time      with their own children than their parents spent with them

1991 –- Canada  The Federated Women’s Institute finds that 69% of rural members asked   said if economic conditions permitted they would prefer to be home to care for             their own children

1991 –  Canada – Toronto Star finds that 2/3 of parents say the best place for

            preschool children is at home with their parents. 16% favor licensed

            daycare over home care

1991- Canada – Globe and Mail and CBC – 76% of those asked felt that

            children’s well-being is sacrificed is both parents have paid employment

1992 – Canada – National Post-Homemakers Magazine  Poll  finds that 78% of women             say family is             more important to them than career

1994 – Canada -Angus Reid  poll finds hat  70% of parents who both were employed             outside the home said if they could, they would choose to have one of them home             with the kids

1995-  Canada – General Social Survey – 59% of men and 51% of women felt that when    women are in the paid labor force children suffer.  However 68% said that men             suffered when they were the only ones bearing financial responsibility for the family.

1995 – US – The National Child Care Survey of families finds that among those with             annual incomes under $15,000 , 58% of children are in parental care all or most of             the time.

             -22% of children with two married parents were in parental care while only 8%             of single employed mothers were in parental care.

             -26% of single mothers in low income households use care by a relative, 23% of             mothers in education programs use care by a relative and 28% of mothers with             low income paid work chose care by a relative. 

            -21% of single mothers with paid work used family daycare and 27% used a          daycare centre.

            -among low income households 35% said they preferred care by relatives.

            -only 16% said that cost was the main factor in choice of care.

            -One survey participant said “Parents, as a group are the best trustees of their c            children. They must have real choices”

            -In the US 46% of children in low income single parent households are in care by             grandparent some or most of the time

1996 –Canada –  Canadian Council on Social Development – “The Progress of Canada’s             Children” – finds that “Many parents go to extraordinary lengths so that one can             be at home when the children are young, often living below the poverty line to do        so”

1997 – Canada – Global Communications and Decima Research find

            that 75% of Ontario parents feel that children with a parent at home

            are happier and 60% feel they are better behaved

1997-  Canada- Ontario Compass poll – 92% of Ontarians believe that parents            themselvesare the best child-care providers for infants and preschoolers

1997 – US Pew research reports in Baltimore Sun that 81% of women feel it is harder to             be a mother today than a generation ago.  25% of mothers with children under age       18 said if given a choice they would not work outside the home. 29% said given a             choice they would work for pay full time while 41% said they preferred part-time      paid work. Only 40% of those employed for full time pay said they were home    when the kids got home from school.

1998 – US Newsweek- 70% of parents said that if was no problem to find a good daycare `            and lack of one was not the issue they still wanted more time with their own kids

1998 – Canada -Southam Compas and National Foundation for Family Research and             Education  survey finds that 86% of parents want change in tax law so young             families can afford to have a parent home with the child.  81% said government             should put more emphasis on family

1999 – Canada – Canadian Policy Research Network – a majority of parents say they      want economic supports for parents during the first 3 years of life so a parent   can have the option of being home with the kids

2000 – Canada – Angus Reid  polls finds that  77% of Canadians want parents not the             state to provide care of the children.

2000- Canada – Compass poll in July asks Canadians if government should fund daycare             or give the money to parents. 70% or respondents say that money should go to             parents, up 10% since 1997. Only 21% say the money should go directly to             the daycare.

2000- Britain-             Dr. Catherine Hakim in ‘Work-Lifestyle choices  in the 21st century’             reports that 20% of women are centred primarily on careers, that 20% of             women             are focused primarily on home and family and 60% are ‘adaptive’             wanting to         reduce paid hours of work at certain stages of their lives or to combine part-time      paid work with being home with the children.  Hakim found that most             government policy focuses only on providing daycare which benefits mainly only      20% of the women surveyed.

2001 – Canada – Children and the Hill – Senator Landon Pearson finds

            that the main concern for children across Canada is poverty

2001 – US Dr. Kathleen Sylvester in “Future of Children’ notes recent polls

            showing the American public believes parents should be the primary influence

            in their children’s lives and it is best if mothers can be home to care

            for the very young

2002 – Canada -Macleans magazine survey finds that  97% of parents say raising   children is a satisfying experience. 63% of fathers and 73% of mothers say that if    they could afford it they would prefer to have a parent home with the children             rather than at paid work.

2002 – Canada – Strategic Counsel finds that ¾ of Canadians would raise their children             themselves at home if they could and almost 90% of parents asked would prefer             to have one parent at home with the children but could not afford that option.

 2002- Canada -Michael Marzolini, Liberal party pollster finds that 6 in 10 Canadians             feel the federal government’s highest priority should be increased spending on             health and social programs.

2002- Canada -Ipsos-Reid, Durex, Environics, Stats Canada surveys of the year find            that 15% of Canadian men and 20% of Canadian women report having             contemplated suicide because of stress. 66% of Canadians believe family is more             important than paid work, 34% of Canadians take work home with them, 75%             work for pay over 40 hours a week

2002-  Canada -Strategic Counsel in “Canadian Attitudes on the Family’ finds that 71%             of those asked say the current tax system makes it difficult for families to have             one parent home with the kids. The majority felt the biggest threat to a family   today is economic.

2002- UK – Pregnancy and Birth magazine finds that  75% of expectant mothers say that       if they would afford it, they would not return to full or part-time paid work when             their children were small.  87% of those asked say government should financially             help mothers who are home rather than ‘ trying to force all mothers back into the             workplace”

2003 – Canada -Family Caregiver News Magazine quotes Health Canada research             finding that the number of unpaid home-based caregivers grows 15-20% annually             due to shorter hospital stays and aging boomers.

2003 – Canada  Environics reports that 77% of Canadians taking care of a gravely ill             family member have taken time off paid work, usually without pay, to provide the        care.

2003 –US Census Bureau finds that for mothers of young children overall paid labor    force participation has been dropping, It was 59% in 1998 but in 2002 was 55% –           Jill Kiecolt in ‘ Satisfaction with Work and Family Life’ says more and more    women are finding the home more satisfying than the paid workplace

2003- Canada – Centre for Research and Information on Canada surveying Canadians in             their 20s finds that there is a trend to insisting on flex-time workplaces

2003 – Canada – Millenium Group found that most new college grads value their personal             life more than their paid work life and they want it addressed when they get paid      jobs

2004- Canada The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth finds that 51%     of children aged newborn to five were looked after by a parent, 17% were looked             after by relatives .Family daycares accounted for 16% of child care and only 10%     of children were in a formal and regulated daycare setting. In Quebec 43% of             children were cared for at home and only 21% attend regulated daycare despite its             preferential funding. In Quebec 6% of children are in family daycare with a   relative, 18% are in family daycare with a nonrelative, 4% are in home care with a             relative and 4% are in home care with a nonrelative. 4% are in before or after-            school care.

2005 – Canada – The Vanier Institute surveys 2093 Canadians finding that 90% feel that             in a two parent home the ideal is for one parent to be home to raise the children.             Among mothers in paid employment, nearly all would prefer part-time paid work             to full-time. The second preference after at-home care was grandparent care, then             care by another relative and fourth preference is child care in a home setting.

2005 – Canada–  CTV network in Alberta released results of a poll asking who provided             care of your child and of 7790 asked, 6050 said they have a family member             providing such care, 8% use not-for-profit care and 14% use for-profit care.

2005 – US -the Ladders.com, a job site in New York surveys fathers and finds that 62%             would put their careers on hold to be stay-at-home dads if they could.  45% said             that their companies however offered no time off for paternity bonding with the        child. 18% said their employers offered up to two months  leave only.  31% of the             480 fathers askedfelt that it was more ‘valuable’ for them to deliver a keynote             speech at a convention than to attend their child’s soccer game.

2005-US – Fortune magazine findsthat 90% of the best companies to work for help             employees balance their paid work and their home life and those with flex time,             job sharing and on-site daycare are highly ranked

2005 -Canada -BC Biomedical Laboratories of BC is in an industry where  there is often             a 90% staff turnover rate. However the rate at BC Biomedical is only 6% partly             because its mostly female paid workforce is allowed to adjust their work times             as needed to fit around their personal needs.

2006 –  US -The Alliance for Marriage  releases results of a poll Sept 2006 surveying             paid work and family life.  62% of those asked said they found it difficult to         balance paid career with family obligations and personal interests. 71% of         mothers and 61% of fathers identified the problem.  29% felt flex time would help             address the issue while 17% felt that time off for working overtime, or             compensation time would be useful. 17% said onsite daycare would be helpful.             8% wanted job-sharing, 7% wanted telecommuting and 4% wanted expanded             family-leave policies.

2006 – US survey finds that among single mothers there are high levels of stress. They     express concerns about the lack of time they speed with their children and with             their obligations for housekeeping, taking care of children and earning all without             help from a partner. 60% are in poverty and most say their greatest             challenge is             economic. A 1992 US study found that the median income of a 2 parent family             was $42,064 but for a single parent family was $17,221.

2006  Canada –Ipsos Reid surveys 1662 Western Canadian parents finding that 61%             worry they don’t spend enough time with their children and 77% says that if             they could they would  spend more ‘quality time’ with them.  87% of parents said      they did not have time to do all everything they wanted to do and 68% felt burn     out by their busy schedules.  Of how they prefer to spend time with children 31%             preferred holidays, 27% preferred doing outdoor sports or activities such as         picnics and 15% preferred just chatting and quiet times together.

2006 – Canada –  Fleishman-Hillard Canada (formerly GPC Research) releases results of         a  Nov 2005 pre-election Canadian survey of childcare policy asking 2012             respondents their views. (310 in Atlantic, 401 in Quebec, 500 in Ontario, 200 in             Manitoba and Sask, 301 in Alberta and 300 in BC) Results included:

            -over 80% preferred parental care in the home as the ideal care arrangement for             young children

-85% of rural residents and 80% of urban residents preferred to have a parent at home

– 75% of Quebecers and  91% of Albertans preferred to have a parent  at home

-82% of males and 81% of females preferred having a parent at home

-86% of married Canadians and 76% of single-never married Canadians preferred to have a parent at home

-84% of low income Canadians compared to 78% of high income Canadians preferred to have a parent at home

-88% of Canadians over age 65 and 79% of younger Canadians preferred to have a parent at home

-78% of parents with children under age 6 at home preferred to have a parent at home

-70% of Quebec parents of young children and 78% of Ontario parents of young children preferred to have a parent at home

            -If parental care were not an option the preferred other choices are 53% relative-            based care, 20% family daycare, 7% for-profit daycare and 17% nonprofit             daycare

            -In Quebec 33% of parents preferred as their second choice relative based care.            In that province 35% preferred a family daycare (dayhome) arrangement

            -regardless of household income level, gender, age of parents,

 or rural-urban the trend to want relative-based care was consistent

            -Given options of how government should invest $5 billion per year for care of             children, 62% preferred giving all parents a tax deduction, 57% preferred cash             payments to parents, 45% preferred an overall tax reduction, 38% preferred             subsidies to childcare centres and 35% preferred building a national daycare             childcare system

            -Asked whether a European plan for paid parental time at home with a baby for 3             years was advisable in Canada, 69% said it was a good or very good idea,  27%     said it was a bad or very bad idea.

            -the highest support for the idea was in Quebec at 79% of all parents

            -60% of men and 71% of women supported such parental leave

            -77% of young adults and 60% of senior adults approved of such paid leave

            -asked whether policies should be in place to encourage grandparent-based care of             young children,  53% thought it a good or very good idea and 42% thought it a          bad or very bad idea

            The polling firm has concluded that most Canadians do not prefer a national             daycare childcare system and that parents even in Quebec prefer direct supports to         parents.

2006 – US -Carrie Lukas of the Independent Women’s Forum in the US has reported on             three recent US polls about women’s roles

            -PEW survey of mothers with children under 18 found that the majority of women             prefer part-time paid work over full time, and 20% would cut back paid work             hours if they could in order to spend more time with the children.

            -Public Agenda, a US polling firm, surveyed parents of children under age 5. 6%             felt that quality daycare was the ideal care arrangement 70% felt that it was best             for a parent to be at home if possible. Given a list of options the majority of those    asked felt daycare was the ‘least preferred option”. 70% agreed with the statement             ‘Parent should only rely on a daycare center when they have no other option”

            Lukas concluded that daycare should be one option but the best resolution is to             lower taxes for families so being able to be home with a young child is an             affordable option for those who want it.  Lukas wrote the book “The Politically             Incorrect Guide to Women, Sex and Feminism”

2007- UK -Radio 4 in the Woman’s Hour program surveyed listeners, the majority of             whom thought women should marry by age 30.  Nearly 40% also felt that children             were best looked after by a mother at home. The results stunned some women’s             rights activists who felt that marriage was passé, but were consistent with the fact             that marriage is again popular in the UK and that the divorce rate is at its lowest in 20 years.

2011 – US Fragile Families Survey  follows 500 children from ages 1- 9 years, 75%             of whom were born to unmarried couples. The study finds that though 82% were     born into a romantic relationship, only 35% of those relationships had             continued after 5 years.  Unmarried mothers had lower incomes and worse             health than did married mothers and father involvement declined over the five             years.  Children born to unmarried parents had lower cognitive scores, higher             levels of behavioral problems and higher rates of obesity.

2012 – US- A North Dakota State university survey finds there is much more negative             public perception of single never-married mothers than of married mothers.             Single mothers are  particularly negatively viewed for their childrearing ability   and family lifestyle. In the US in 2009 there were 11.7 single parent households,             of whom 9.8 million were headed by single mothers.

2013 – Canada –Albion Research surveyed 2022 Canadians finding a large proportion             favor parental care of children over third party daycare, especially for young             children. The study found

            -76% of those asked feel it is best if a child under age 6 is home with a parent

            -67% of parents would like government funds to go directly to parents not to             daycare or kindergarten

            -69% of those asked wanted to be home with a child under age 6 but if that was             not possible, the next preferred option was care by a relative. The third highest ranked option was a neighborhood daycare, the 4th, a not for profit daycare and       last a for profit daycare.The survey was commissioned by the Institute of             Marriage and Family Canada.

2013- UK – the group Make Mothers Matter International has released results of a study    of 11,887 women in 16 European countries, looking at their preferences regarding             mothering.  76% of European women over age 18 are mothers but Make Mothers             Matter found that the views of women themselves are rarely sought, only views of             academics or organizations. This study found that:

            -instead of wanting more daycare, a majority of respondents wanted more time      with the kids. 

            -84% felt that spending enough time with the children is key to a good             relationship with them

            -95% felt that the service mothers provide for children should be recognized as             important work

            -83% did not feel teenagers can take care of themselves after school

            -64% did not feel motherhood is well valued in society

            -volunteer work was highest for mothers who were home with the kids.

            -75% of retired mothers and 69% of mothers at home do volunteer work. 39% of             mothers with one child and 77% of others with 5 children do volunteer work.

            -33% of mothers surveyed had full time paid jobs but only 11% wanted full time             paid jobs.

            -33% of mothers surveyed had part-time paid jobs but 63% of mothers wanted to             have part-time paid jobs

            -26% of mothers wanted to be home full time with the children, 76% wanting to             be home for those under age 1 year, 61% for those 1-3 years and 37% wanting to             be home when the children are in school.

            -where 3rd party care was the topic, respondents wanted it to be available part-            time not just full time.  They wanted paid job holidays that matched school             holidays and paid job hours that matched school hours, all to ensure parents could    spend more time with the kids

            -19% wanted money for the parent to be home and 12% wanted more recognition             of the at-home parent role

2013-Sweden – an opinion poll by the triweekly paper Varlden Ida surveyed parents             about preferences and found:

            -64% of those asked felt a child should be home with a parent optimally till the             child is 4 years old. Only 27% disagreed..

            In Sweden government policy massively funds nonparental  care instead of             parental.  80% of toddlers are in institutional daycare.The survey found that              members of the ruling Social Democrat party members also felt parental care best.              76% of blue collar union members also said home care is preferable

2013 US – Pew poll finds that only 7% of mothers of young kids felt that the ideal             situation was for the mother to have a full time paid job outside the home. In that             poll 47% of mothers with paid work said their ideal situation would be part-time             paid work only.  Among  parents with paid work and household incomes of  under             $50,000, 63% said they would prefer to be home with their children but that they      needed the income of paid work. Among the broader population 52$ of mothers             and 48% of dads said they would like to be home with the kids were it not for             needing more income.

2014 US -The American Association of Retired persons find that 90% of those aged 65        or over want to remain their own homes as long as possible ‘age in place’. This             preference seems stronger as people age. Among those aged 50 -64 only 71%             envisaged that attitude when they were seniors.

2015  – US -Gallup poll finds that 56% of women with a child younger than 18 said that       ideally they would like to be home to care for their family.  Among those with             full-time or part-time paid jobs, 54% said that they would prefer to be home             with the kids.

2015 – Canada Statistics Canada finds that 25% of women in paid work preferred part      time employment in order to spend time with their children. 

2017 – UK- a study of 13 single parents finds that they are dealing with high levels of             anxiety due to food insecurity. 67% struggle with finances. Single mothers are             often stigmatized for not having paid work, while married mothers are praised for             having paid work.

2019 – Canada-Social policy analyst Rick August studies parental preferences for style of             care, finding that parents prefer home and family based care for preschoolers.

2019 – Canada – Statistics Canada finds that when parents choose nonparental care their             decisions   for those aged 0-5 years are
            -51.9% in daycare or preschool

            -25.6% in care by a relative other than parent

            -20.4% in care in a family child care  home

2019- US- A New England Journal study finds that rates of dying at home are 30.7% of             deaths now, up from 23.8% in 2003, enabling those who wish that location to             more likely get it. The increase in home hospice services has been noted with             such care offered to 1.49 million people in 2017.

2019  – Australia- The Council of Single Mothers surveys 1000 single mothers finding that 70% struggle to meet basic expenses even though 65% are in paid             employment. The survey concludes that employment alone is not a pathway out             of poverty for single mothers.

2019 – US –  The New York Times, with writer Claire Cain Miller, examines a new trend    to value parents at home. Her research finds that more than half of Americans say             they believe a young child should have a parent at home and more than half of all             mothers say they would prefer to be home with their child.

2020- US – the National Center on Disabilities and Journalism studies preferences of the             disabled for how they are described in the press.  It finds that some prefer identity             first language  – (autistic person) but most prefer people first language ( person with autism). They find that people prefer to not be referred to as sick, crazy,             loon, psycho, freak, insane, retarded, invalid, lame, slow learner, stutterer,             mongoloid, special needs. They recommend that people are said to ‘use a             wheelchair’ not as being ‘confined to a wheelchair’ and that disabilities be             mentionned only when they are a vital part of the story. They recommend that       people are not referred to as ‘afflicted ‘with, or suffering from a condition but that       they ‘have’ it – eg. he has muscular dystrophy.

2020 – UK study finds that a majority of seniors prefer to ‘age in place’ and remain in             their current home as long as possible. It cites similar studies form Hong Kong<             Spain, Netherlands, Sweden and Germany finding the same result. seniors             prioritize access to amenities, a clean walkable and safe environment, and       nearby             public transit.

2020- US- Stanford University finds that 80 % of Americans prefer when they die to die             at home. Though some cultures have taboos against it and sometimes medical             conditions make it impossible, the preference is high among the public.  However             in practice 60% die in an acute care hospital, 20% in nursing homes and only 20%     at home.

B. POLLS AND VALIDITY

Like any other statistical study, polls must be valid and reliable. There are concerns surveying the public to ensure that the questions are unbiased and the sampling is fair.

a.  the questions

            How a question is framed should not show bias but only

            ask for preference. The expression ‘childcare’ in these surveys usually does

            define it broadly to include family based care. This permits respondents

            a fuller range of choices than surveys that ask if a person

            prefers ‘childcare’ but only by that term mean 3rd party care.

b. the sampling strategy

            It is important that those asked are representative of the population

            being considered. Asking about parenting choices is fairest if all

            parents have equal chance of answering, not just parents from one particular

            care style.  Those criteria seem to have been met in the above surveys

            where those not using 3rd party care were as likely to be asked

            as those who use 3rd party care. In the past, some government surveys have aimed

            at asking both parents and daycare workers as ‘care providers’.. However such

            surveys it turned out had surveyed as parents, the parents who used

            the daycare and those in the line up to use it and had considered daycare

            workers who were themselves parents as parents for the survey.  That

            sampling strategy was much less likely to learn the views of

            parents who preferred care by a parent, grandparent, sitter or nanny.

            Finding who to survey is a difficult challenge given that not all

            parents learn of surveys, not all own computers, not all may have

            landlines to be phoned and not all are members of organizations easily   

            accessed to tell members of the survey.  The sampling in the above

            surveys however seems to meet the criterion of finding a range of

            parents and of others interested in family care issues.

            Bias is sampling can be a significant problem with surveys in

            general and with surveys about caregiving, the easy availability

            of identifiable populations who use daycares listed in directories

            has often led governments to survey mostly daycare users

            on issues of childcare.  Surveying union members who represent

            daycare members also risks creating a bias in sampling.
           

            In  a parallel way however asking parents who are moms at

            home bloggers or readers of homemaking magazines may tilt

            the balance to over represent views of those at home. The

            challenge for those creating polls is to avoid such bias and

            to equally survey the widest possible range of parents

            choosing various parenting styles. This criterion seems to

            have been met however in the polls above.

3. Interpretation of data

            Poll questions sometimes ask for reasons behind decisions made and often

            reveal financial pressure to choose a care style that is not a preference..

            A resolution of that dilemma is often suggested by daycares tomake daycare

            universal,  to make sure that daycare is there for those who ‘need’ it and that it is             not costly. However the other potential solution more consistent with public will

            would logically be to ensure that money was not the determiner of the decision.             When  respondents are asked about how government money should

            be directed, the pattern of answers shows a preference for money 

            to flow to the parent so they can make the decisions themselves.

            When the public will is surveyed and is representative and consistent

            over time as it seems to be, the counter argument has sometimes been

            that what people want may be true but it is not ‘realistic’. The argument promoting             third party care to be preferentially funded has been that

            economic pressures are a fact and that people can’t always get what

            they want.  The counter argument could be made however that in a fair society

            government does owe people laws that permit them to as far as possible

            have a chance to get what they want. If tax laws could be made to

            enable a range of care choices, such a goal may be as realistic as accepting

            as inevitable that some people have no choice.

            In equality rights issues, where there has been a historic discrimination against

            a role, as there has been for traditional caregiving, the arguments against valuing

            it have often been that the discriminatory situation is just reality.  To address

            that attitude is itself vital to confronting discrimination since accepting a

            discrimination and creating ways to work with it, risks itself perpetuating it.

            The particular challenges  of single mothers have been noted in many studies as

            they discuss their many responsibilities for care of children, housekeeping

            and their financial distress even if earning. There are several ways to address

            those concerns, with daycare activists often arguing that the dilemma proves

            a need for 3rd party childcare service and often free or low cost funded by

            the state. The daycare argument is to say there is a need for single

            mothers in particular to have daycare so they can earn.

             The other interpretation of that data though is that single mothers are as entitled             as any other mothers to a full range of care options for their children, and that if    they want to be home for a while with the baby or use grandparent or other family             based care, those options should also be possible and equally valued by the state.    To deprive single mothers of the dignity and range of options could itself be viewed as an unfair discrimination based on marital status. It could be argued further that how we treat single mothers without links to income or a man, shows   in a more purefied  form how society values parenting itself. When there is negative perception even contempt for a single mother who is home with a child,    we are looking directly at societal bias against caregiving and women who do it.  The negative outcomes of children from a single parent home may well be mitigated significantly, when they have one absent parent already, by not also forcing the other parent they have left to also be away from them for long      periods of time. The case could be made that children of single parents in particular need             the anchoring presence of a parent or family member given their significant

            other loss.

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