1700 – 1799

1700s – a current of thinking argues that children are inherently bad

1734 – Sweden – female taxpaying property owners and members of guilds can vote in local elections for the first time. Very few women around the world can vote.

1762 – France – Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote ‘Emile’ about a child educated a new way, apart from other children. He suggested that children are inherently good and have inside themselves abilities to enhance their own learning. Pestalozzi in Switzerland applies these principles

1776 – Scotland – Adam Smith defines productive labour as any labor which adds to the value of the subject receiving it. He says that services are valueless and the labour of a menial servant adds to the value of nothing. (viewing household work as unproductive)

1780 – Switzerland – Pestalozzi’s school applies principles of Jean Jacques Rousseau that children are basically good and that their education matters “How Gertrude Teaches Her Children”

1789 – France – Olympe de Gouges publishes the Declaration of the Rights of Woman during the French Revolution to protest exclusion of women in the Declaration of the Rights of Man

1792 – US – Mary Wollstonecraft in her book “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” says women are equal to men and should not be subservient. She says girls should go to schools with boys and not be emotionally or financially dependent on them.

She petitions government for the right to vote but is unsuccessful.

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